If you don’t have money to buy or rent a Bobcat, tractor, or lawnmower, you don’t have to worry about leveling your lawn as you can easily level it by hand.
A yard filled with grooves and bumps is not only ugly, but it also affects drainage, creating pools of water that kill grass and at the same time serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other insects. Uneven ground is also hard to mow.
While having a heavy leveling machine will get the work done fast, there is no harm in getting down and dirty and learning how to level a lawn by hand.
What you will learn
Leveling high spots in the lawn
High spots bring about mowing problems and at the same time hurt drainage. To eliminate the spots, you need to redistribute the soil that makes up the spot.
At the same time, you need to take care that you don’t bury the nutrient-rich topsoil that grass and other plants grow best in.
Step 1: Begin with removing grass from the high spot and surrounding areas using a shovel. Dig out the topsoil layer and place it in a pile for later use.
Step 2: Using a tiller, till the exposed soil to a depth of 6 inches. Remove any pieces of plants, turf, and rocks larger than 1 inch in diameter that you might come across when tiling.
Step 3: To smoothen the soil and match the grade of the surrounding yard, rake the soil. It’s also wise to roll the soil with a lawn roller to better identify the uneven areas. Rake or till more if necessary.
Step 4: Once you are satisfied, cover the tilled and leveled area with the topsoil you previously removed. Rake the soil one more time to distribute the topsoil evenly over the area.
Step 5: To cover up the bare soil, sow grass seed. You can also lay sod on the area.
Step 6: To cap it, run the lawn roller over the area again. Ensure you press the seeds into the soil.
Pro tip: Add peat moss, compost, or organic material to the topsoil to improve the nutrient content of the soil. If your yard is having drainage issues, add small amounts of sand to the topsoil.
Leveling low spots in the lawn
Even if you take good care of your lawn, it’s common for low spots to come about in your lawn. Several factors can lead to low spots:
- Following the same mowing pattern all the time
- Allowing heavy machinery on your lawn
- Driving on your lawn when it’s wet
- Decaying root and other organic matter
The key to getting the most when fixing the low spots is timing. Fix the spots when the grass is actively growing. This is usually early fall for cool-season grass and late spring for warm- seasons grass.
Leveling low shallow spots in the lawn
If your lawn has low shallow spots of no more than 1-2 cm deep, correct the problem with topdressing. You can apply the top dressing mixture directly on the target area then evenly distribute it with a rake until it has filled out and level.
To compact the soil, use your feet and the flat side of the rake. You should lightly water the soil to aid further compaction, and then let it settle.
After the soil has settled, distribute grass seed then apply a light dusting of topsoil mix. To assist the germination, lightly apply water four times a day. You should then water the area regularly and allow time for the grass to grow.
Repeat this process for all the shallow areas in your yard.
Care for the lawn normally after six weeks spread out and additional ½ inch of topdressing material.
Pro tip: You need to use the right amount of topdressing mixture. A heavy or damp mixture is hard to spread out and can interfere with grass growth. Too loose or light mixture, on the other hand, is easily washed away or exposes the filled-in area to dry.
You need a mixture of equal parts well-rotted compost or topsoil and sand. If the mixture is clumpy or damp, first dry it out by spreading it out on a tarp.
Leveling deep low spots in the lawn
If the low spot is more than 2 cm deep, use a sharp blade or edger to cut one or more intact pieces of grass or any other ground cover from the bottom of the low spot. Carefully lift the pieces from the spot and set them aside temporarily.
Follow up by filling the depression with topsoil to bring it to level with the rest of the yard. You should then replace the grass or vegetation pieces you had removed earlier and water it.
If no vegetation is growing in the low spot, fill the low area with topsoil then reseed or re-sod it.
Pro tip: If the low spots in your yard are ruts or low due to heavy traffic that has pushed the soil down, inserting a digging or garden fork under the grassroots and lifting them so that the grass is 1-2 inches above the surrounding areas and then allowing it to settle, fixes the problem.
Leveling a sloping lawn
A sloped lawn brings about water runoff, uneven moisture retention, soil erosion, and difficulties when mowing the grass or tiling the flowerbeds.
The bottom of the lawn tends to catch the runoff water, which makes it remain too wet for healthy grass growth.
Sloping lawns are also unsuitable for patios, decks, gazebos, and lawn games. By leveling the sloping lawn, you decrease the slope, giving your lawn an inviting look.
For you to do it effectively, you need to follow a set of steps:
Step 1: Get rid of all vegetation from your backyard. Using a shovel, dig up all the plants and transplant them into pots. Remember to place the plants in a shaded area and water them to keep them healthy.
Step 2: To avoid accidents, contact the local utility companies and inform them about your project. The representatives will visit your yard and help you in identifying the locations of water pipes, power lines, and phone lines.
Step 3: Once you are given the green light to progress with your project, remove the entire topsoil layer and place it in a pile.
Step 4: At the bottom of the slope, add purchased subsoil. Spread the soil creating a slight slope away from your house. If your yard is big, distribute the soil to create a slope of 12 inches for every 50 square feet of ground. You should rake the surface until its smooth.
Step 5: To compact the soil and prevent future settling, push the lawn roller back and forth on the surface.
Step 6: Using a shovel, fill any present depressions with subsoil and rake the surface to smoothen it. For a pristine look, push the lawn roller over the surface one more time.
Step 7: Lay a board at the top of the slope. Position the board in such a way that its length runs down the slope. You should place a level on top of the board and lift the lower end of the board until the level indicates that the board is level.
Add soil if necessary. Repeat this process the entire length of the slope until you get an even grade on the entire lawn.
Step 8: Once you are done, replace the topsoil onto the graded area and spread it evenly. To compact it, push a lawn roller repeatedly over the surface.
Step 9: To further settle the soil, water the area thoroughly. Give the surface time to dry completely then inspect for any sunken depressions and regions. To fill up the gaps and depression, you need to use coarse rocks, finer soil, and gravel. The ground should remain depression-free after drying.
Step 10: If everything is perfect, go ahead and plant turf. You can manually plant small turf sampling of grass or reseed the lawn. This is usually long and may require you to hire a professional.
Step 11: Instead, you can use older removed turf if it’s still in good shape. You can also plant the lawn using lawn carpet.
This is a simple patch of a rectangular patch that you can lay down like carpet in your yard. The rug is inexpensive, and you can lay it to cover the entire yard.
Step 12: For you to get the most from the carpet, ensure that you lay it down evenly and adequately so that you don’t have issues with uneven ground later on.
When buying it, ensure that you buy from the same batch. This is to avoid having different lawn patterns.
Step 13: Once the new lawn is in place, go ahead and take good care of it. Regularly fertilize, water, and mow it
Pro tip: When leveling an existing yard, the lawn should slope away from the house. If you have a large lawn, the yard should have 3-2 inches of downward slope every 10 feet.
This is to allow maximum drainage during the rainy season.
What causes an uneven lawn?
Plenty of factors can make your lawn uneven. These factors include:
Animals: From your lovely dog to neighborhood cats, animals will make your lawn bumpy. If you allow animals on your lawn during the rainy season, they are bound to exact pressure on it, leading to you having low spots. To maintain a beautiful, even lawn, keep off critters from your yard.
Kids: Your adorable kids are a lawn disaster if you allow them to play on a moist lawn. When kids play on soft soil, they put a lot of pressure on the lawn, which compromises the health of the grass.
Earthworms: While small, earthworms shift between 20 and 25 tons of soil per acre in one area every year. You can imagine what happens when the soil on your lawn turns every few months—you have ugly low and high spots.
The key to keeping the little insects out of your lawn is to keep the pH of your soil low.
Weather: During winter, water sits on the yard for a long time. This damages not only the grass, but also the soil underneath. To prevent lawn damage due to excessive water, have an excellent drainage system.
Rocks: Sometimes, there might be rocks under your lawn that might be giving your high lawn spots. To fix this problem, you need to excavate the affected areas and break up the rubble underneath.
Things you will need
While you will be using your hands, you will need a few essential tools to get the work done. These tools include:
- Hard metal rake
- Topsoil or mulch
- Plastic pots
- Lawn roller
To make digging easy, water the area to be leveled a day before. Take care that you don’t overwater the area as wet soil is just as hard to work with as dry soil. Always wear closed-toes shoes for gardening to avoid hurting yourself.
Up to you
As you can see, you can level a lawn by hand even if you have never done it before. If you have a large area, you have to put more effort into the project than when you have just a small area.
If you have to dig up a large area, it’s wise that you notify the local authorities so that you don’t tamper with the power, phone, and water lines.